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Site of the loom model unearthed. Photo courtesy of Chengdu Museum
Cultural relics archives
Model of jacquard loom unearthed from Shanxi Han tomb in Laoguan
Heritage level: Unrated
Excavation time and place: Laoguanshan, Chengdu, 2012
Collection unit: Chengdu Museum
In the second season of the "National Treasure" that just ended, the Han and Jin dynasty treasures of the "Five Stars Out of the East for China" treasure of the Xinjiang Museum and the brocade patterns copied by the China Silk Museum over a period of three years The pattern and superb weaving process surprised the audience. The director of the China Silk Museum, Zhao Feng, introduced on the spot that the loom model unearthed from the tomb of Laoguan Shanhan in Chengdu at the end of 2012 is the key to copying the "five stars out of the East China" pattern brocade.
A total of 4 loom models unearthed by Zhao Feng were unearthed. The largest one was only 70 cm long, 50 cm high, and about 20 cm wide. However, they were national treasures and were treasures of the Chengdu Museum. One. They are the physical manifestation of the highest technology of the brocade handicraft industry two thousand years ago, which proves the history of large-scale production of Shu brocade in Chengdu in the Han Dynasty, and once again proves that Shu brocade, as the "mother brocade of the world", has a long history of weaving and is well-known, as well as the textile industry in Sichuan. And the important position of products on the Silk Road.
They are the world's earliest jacquard loom discovered to date
In December 2012, during the construction of Chengdu Metro Line 3, a Western Han tomb was found at the construction site of Tianhui Town, and the Chengdu Cultural Relics and Archeology Task Force immediately carried out a rescue archeological excavation. While clearing Tomb 2, archeologists found four loom models in the silt on the north bottom of the tomb. They have clear shapes and complex structures, and there are still threads and dyes on the parts. Recognized by relevant silk weaving experts, the four looms are divided into two types, one is a sliding frame type multi-hook jacquard loom model, and the other is a link type multi-hook jacquard loom model. The complete model of the Western Han Dynasty jacquard loom was first discovered in the country. Around the loom, there are several loom figurines with different attitudes. It seems that different processes are being performed.
The excavation of Laoguanshan loom has attracted great attention from the academic circle.
According to Dr. Huang Xiaofeng of the Chengdu Museum, according to historical records, Shu Jin has the reputation of "The Mother of the World". However, due to the humid climate in Chengdu, the tapestry of this period has never been unearthed. The brocade treasure of the Xinjiang Museum "Five Stars Out of the East" brocade. When it was unearthed, many scholars speculated that the brocade was made by Shu land, but there was no more evidence to support it. Many details of the Shu brocade require more materials to enrich it.
The turning point happened on the loom model unearthed in Laoguanshan. Huang Xiaofeng said that after in-depth research, experts confirmed that they belong to the jacquard loom. The great thing about a jacquard loom is that it can compile and store a "binary" code similar to a modern computer for looms through tens of thousands of silk threads. The "selection" of the workers when weaving is equivalent to programming the pattern, and finally weaving a patterned brocade. What is most amazing is that there is more than one programming method for the old official Shanhan tomb loom model: the sliding frame and the connecting rod are two technical means, and the pattern weaves is different. "So when the loom of the old official Shanhan tomb was unearthed, the academic community gave a high evaluation." Huang Xiaofeng said that the world's earliest jacquard loom discovered so far has proved that Shu brocade is indeed a well-known name. Prior to this, archaeological discoveries of China in the Han Dynasty have unearthed fabrics without tools. This archeological discovery is of great significance to the history of Chinese textiles and the history of Chinese science and technology. They are a symbol of traditional wisdom, which confirms the leading position of Chinese weaving technology in the history of textiles.
Loom technology restores "Five Stars Out of the East" tapestry
How amazing is the weaving technique of the old official Shanhan tomb loom? In 2013, the "Compass Project" of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage began to try to restore the jacquard machine of the Han Dynasty based on it. Three years later, experts at the China Silk Museum used the restored loom to reproduce the "Five Stars Out of the East" tapestry.
What's so amazing about copying the "Five Stars Out of the East" brocade? Zhao Feng said that the brocade reached 10,470 warp threads with a width of less than 50 cm, and the density was very high. In the more than 20 years since the relics were unearthed, people have copied its ornamentation, but most of them are not as dense as the cultural relics. It is encouraging that after copying with the old Guanshan tomb loom model technology, Wuxingjin finally regained its gorgeousness after more than a year. Luo Qun, a research librarian at the China Silk Museum responsible for this project, lamented, "We have only used the most advanced loom in the Han Dynasty to reproduce the most complex brocade of the Han Dynasty. It shows how brilliant the culture of the people of Sichuan has created "The deputy director of the museum, Wang Chen, revealed that she had visited the archaeological excavation site of the ancient city of Niya, Xinjiang, to study the" five stars out of the East and benefit China "brocade armbands. "The unique structure of each tapestry is like its identity card, and the structure of the Han Dynasty Shu brocade is the fivefold plain weave pattern, which has remained unchanged for thousands of years." According to this "identity card", there is no doubt that " "Five Stars Out of the East and Benefit China" Brocade armbands are produced in Shu land, which is Shu brocade.
From the excavation of the loom model of the old tomb of the Han Dynasty to the reproduction of the five-star brocade by the loom technology, archeological discoveries and academic achievements all point to the fact that Shu brocade weaving technology once led the country. Huang Xiaofeng said that according to the Han tablet unearthed in Chengdu, five capitals were listed in Chengdu during the Han Dynasty. It is one of the five most economically developed cities in the country. Lacquer ware and brocade are the two most important types of handmade products. The literature also records that Chengdu in Sichuan during the Han and Tang Dynasties was one of the largest suppliers of silk in China. Although the academic community now believes that the starting point of the Silk Road is in Chang'an, the main source of silk fabrics is in Sichuan. The unearthed loom model of Laoguanshan Han tomb reshapes Sichuan's position on the Silk Road: Sichuan brocade and silk products are one of the most important commodities on the Silk Road. The main line of the Silk Road must be connected with Chengdu, Sichuan. , Its important status is irreplaceable.
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